An integrated clustering and copula-based model to assess the impact of intersection characteristics on violation-related collisions
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The main goal of this study is to investigate the impact of a variety of factors on the frequency and the severity of pedestrian-vehicle collisions that involve pedestrian violations. To that end, the collision dataset of the City of Hamilton between 2010 and 2017 was reviewed to filter out pedestrian collisions that involved pedestrian violations. A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) method was applied to divide the dataset into a set of homogeneous clusters, based on traffic and intersection characteristics. A copula-based multivariate model was then developed for each cluster in order to study the impact of the different factors on collisions under the prevailing conditions of each cluster. The results showed that the number of bus stops within the intersection area is directly associated with the frequency and the severity of collisions involving pedestrian violations. A reduction in collisions was observed with the increase in the frequency of buses at intersections that are located along main transit routes. Moreover, the presence of schools near the intersection tends to increase the frequency of collisions involving pedestrian violations, especially at large intersections. The results also revealed that the presence of central refuge islands, despite their overall safety benefits, increases the likelihood of collisions involving pedestrian violations in large intersections. The results of this study provide valuable insights for a better understanding of the safety consequences of pedestrian violations. Such understanding assists engineers and planners to design intersections that reduce the frequency of pedestrian violations and mitigate their negative safety consequences.
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