Comparative effectiveness of higher adalimumab maintenance therapy
standard dose in anti‐tumor necrosis factor experienced Crohn's disease patients: A propensity‐score matched cohort analysis
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BACKGROUND AND AIM: Crohn's disease (CD) patients who previously failed anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy are at higher risk of treatment failure with subsequent biologics. This study aims to determine the effectiveness and safety of higher maintenance dose regimens of adalimumab compared with standard doses in CD patients who failed anti-TNF. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, CD patients who failed anti-TNF and received adalimumab were categorized according to their post-induction maintenance regimen; 40 mg subcutaneous (sc) weekly or 80 mg sc every other week were defined as a high-dose (HD) maintenance regimen, and 40 mg sc every other week was defined as a standard-dose (SD) maintenance regimen. The primary outcome was time to treatment failure. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using propensity scores to create a cohort of matched participants with similar distribution of baseline covariates. RESULTS: Forty patients started on HD regimens following induction, and 77 patients received the SD regimen. The median time to failure in the HD group was 6.6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4.0-9.6) and 3.0 years (IQR 0.9-9.4) in the SD group (log-rank test P = 0.006). Patients on HD adalimumab had a lower hazard rate of treatment failure (hazard ratio: 0.27; 95% confidence interval [0.12, 0.62]; P = 0.002) compared with SD patients. No difference in adverse events was identified between groups (30% vs 31.2%, P = 1.0). Results were similar in the propensity score-matched cohort. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose maintenance regimens were associated with longer time-to-failure as compared with SD regimens in CD patient who failed anti-TNF.
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