The role of genetic factors in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unknown. We therefore examined whether previously identified genetic factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) are associated with the risk of CVD above and beyond established demographic and clinical factors in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Polygenic risk scores (PRS) and individual genetic variants identified in previous studies were obtained from genome-wide genotyping performed in 1,371 DCCT/EDIC participants. Two composite CVD outcomes were considered: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (CVD death or nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke) and any CVD (MACE plus confirmed angina, silent MI, revascularization, or congestive heart failure). Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between the genetic factors and the risk of CVD with adjustment for other factors (including age, lipids, blood pressure, and glycemia).
CAD PRS was strongly associated with the subsequent risk of any CVD (42% and 38% higher risk per 1-SD increase in unadjusted and fully adjusted models, respectively; P < 0.0001) and with the risk of MACE (50% and 40% higher risk per 1-SD increase in unadjusted and fully adjusted models, respectively; P < 0.0001). Several individual single nucleotide polymorphisms were also nominally associated with the risk of any CVD and MACE.
Genetic factors are associated with the risk of subsequent CVD in individuals with T1D above and beyond the effect of established risk factors such as age, lipids, blood pressure, and glycemia.