A review of effort-based decision-making in eating and weight disorders
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Effort-based decision-making provides a framework to understand the mental computations estimating the amount of work ("effort") required to obtain a reward. The aim of the current review is to systematically synthesize the available literature on effort-based decision-making across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. More specifically, the current review summarises the literature examining whether 1) individuals with eating disorders and overweight/obesity are willing to expend more effort for rewards compared to healthy controls, 2) if particular components of effort-based decision-making (i.e. risk, discounting) relate to specific binge eating conditions, and 3) how individual differences in effort and reward -processing measures relate to eating pathology and treatment measures. A total of 96 studies were included in our review, following PRISMA guidelines. The review suggests that individuals with binge eating behaviours 1) are more likely to expend greater effort for food rewards, but not monetary rewards, 2) demonstrate greater decision-making impairments under risk and uncertainty, 3) prefer sooner rather than delayed rewards for both food and money, and 4) demonstrate increased implicit 'wanting' for high fat sweet foods. Finally, individual differences in effort and reward -processing measures relating to eating pathology and treatment measures are also discussed.
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