Management of COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: A comprehensive literature review
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BACKGROUND: The prevalence and severity of COVID-19 are greatly reduced in children, yet some pediatric patients develop a syndrome resembling Kawasaki Disease (KD), termed Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). With an estimated incidence of 2/100,000 children, MIS-C is relatively rare but can be fatal. Clinical features can include fever, hyperinflammatory state, gastrointestinal symptoms, myocardial dysfunction, and shock. The pathogenesis of MIS-C, although yet to be completely elucidated, appears to be distinct from KD in terms of epidemiology, severity, and biochemical signature. AIM OF REVIEW: Although efficacy of treatments for MIS-C have largely not yet been investigated, we aim to conduct a comprehensive literature search of numerous medical databases (AMED, EBM Reviews, Embase, Healthstar, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Cochrane) to highlight treatments used around the world, their rationale, and outcomes to better inform guidelines in the future. Using the findings, an approach to MIS-C management will be outlined. KEY SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF REVIEW: •MIS-C appears to be a SARS-CoV-2 related post-infection phenomenon that is distinct from Kawasaki disease.•Although outcomes are largely favorable, there is significant variation in MIS-C treatment. Most management regimens reported to date mirror that of KD; however, targeted therapy based on specific MIS-C phenotypes may have the potential to improve outcomes.•We recommend close monitoring by a multidisciplinary team, symptomatic treatment (e.g., intravenous immunoglobulin for KD-like symptoms, steroids/immunotherapy for multisystem inflammation), and long-term follow-up.•Further research is required to evaluate the effectiveness of current MIS-C treatments and to determine more refined therapies.
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