Pathogen reduction of whole blood: Supplementing fibrinogen partly corrects clot formation in a massive transfusion model
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BACKGROUND: The use of whole blood (WB) to treat trauma patients is becoming more common. Similar to the treatment of individual components, pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies are available to treat WB. The impact of PI on WB function is not well understood. This study investigated the impact of PI of WB with riboflavin/ultraviolet (UV) light on its hemostatic function by modeling transfusion scenarios for trauma patients and assessing transfusion efficacy by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). As fibrinogen is affected by PI of WB, the effect of fibrinogen supplementation commonly used in trauma patients was also analyzed in this model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Trauma transfusion scenarios were simulated by mixing untreated WB or WB treated with the Mirasol PI technology (riboflavin/UV) in different ratios with hemodiluted blood, and the thromboelasticity was monitored by ROTEM. The impact of supplementation with the fibrinogen concentrate RiaSTAP was investigated in this model. RESULTS: Pathogen-inactivated WB (PI-WB) showed decreased activity in the hemostatic profile compared to the untreated control. Hemodiluted blood at a hematocrit (hct) of 20%, which was reconstituted with PI-WB or untreated WB, exhibited increased alpha values, maximum clot firmness, and clot formation time. Simulating transfusion scenarios by blood replacement with PI-WB resulted in a significant difference in ROTEM parameters between reconstituted PI-treated and -untreated WB (p ≥ .05). The effect of PI treatment waned when PI-WB was enriched with fibrinogen. CONCLUSION: ROTEM investigations suggest that PI treatment has a negative impact on WB clot formation unless fibrinogen supplementation is used.
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