One-pot high-yield synthesis of Pd nanocubes for Pd-Ir nanocube-based immunoassay of nucleocapsid protein from SARS-CoV-2
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Pd-Ir nanocubes are promising peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes for immunoassays, enabled by their excellent stability, relatively high catalytic activity, and reproducible performance. A key step involved in the preparation of Pd-Ir nanocubes is the synthesis of Pd nanocubes. However, the traditional method to synthesize Pd nanocubes requires sophisticated and expensive equipment to precisely control the reaction temperature and highly skilled technicians to achieve satisfactory and reproducible product yields. Herein, we report a simple, cost-effective, high-yield (> 99%) and one-pot strategy to synthesize Pd nanocubes with sizes of 7, 18, and 51 nm for the preparation of Pd-Ir nanocubes. The resulting 18 nm Pd-Ir nanocubes display three orders of magnitude higher peroxidase activity compared to horseradish peroxidase, leading to a significantly increased detection sensitivity when applied in the immunoassay of nucleocapsid protein from SARS-CoV-2. Due to the simplicity in both material synthesis and assaying procedures and the excellent detection sensitivity, our method should allow for the generalized application of Pd-Ir nanocube-based immunoassays for the diagnosis of human diseases.