Incidence and short-term outcomes of Kawasaki disease
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OBJECTIVE: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a childhood vasculitis with conflicting reported North American trends in incidence and patient characteristics. OBJECTIVES: (1) determine KD incidence between 1995 and 2017; (2) compare patient characteristics by era and age group; (3) determine complication and cardiovascular follow-up rates. METHODS: We used population-based health administrative data to identify children (0-18 yr) hospitalized with KD in Ontario, Canada between 1995 and 2017. We excluded children with prior KD diagnosis or incomplete records. We determined the annualized incidence and follow-up trends. RESULTS: KD was diagnosed in 4,346 children between 1995 and 2017. Annual KD incidence was 22.0 (<5 yr), 6.1 (5-9 yr), and 0.6 (10-18 yr) per 100,000 children. KD incidence increased significantly for all age groups, including from 18.4 to 25.0 cases per 100,000 children <5 yr. Ninety-day mortality occurred in ≤5 children (≤0.1%). Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) occurred in 106 children (2.4%, 95% confidence interval 2.0-2.9) during admission and 151 (3.5%, 95% confidence interval 3.0-4.1) during 11-year median follow-up. Children 10-18 yr had longer hospitalizations (4.3 vs. 3.5 days, p = 0.003) and more CAA (7.4% vs. 3.4%, p = 0.007). By 1-year post-diagnosis, 3970 (91.3%) and 2576 (59.3%) children had echocardiography and cardiology follow-up, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: KD incidence is increasing in Ontario, with greater healthcare utilization from hospitalizations and subsequent follow-up. IMPACT: 4346 children were hospitalized for Kawasaki disease over 22 years in Ontario, and Kawasaki disease incidence increased significantly for all age groups, males and females. Older children (10-18 years) had longer hospital length of stay, more PICU admissions and more frequent coronary artery aneurysms. Nearly all children with Kawasaki disease had follow-up echocardiography within 1 year.