Pivotal Advance: Bifidobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria differentially influence immune responses in the proinflammatory milieu of celiac disease
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CD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that presents in genetically predisposed individuals following gluten consumption. In this study, the effects of Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium bifidum IATA-ES2 and Bifidobacterium longum ATCC15707) and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis DSM2451, Escherichia coli CBL2, and Shigella CBD8 isolated from CD patients), alone and in the presence of CD triggers (gliadins and/or IFN-gamma) on surface marker expression and cytokine production by PBMCs, were determined. These effects were also evaluated in cocultures of PBMCs and Caco-2 cells. The Gram-negative bacteria induced higher secretion of Th1-type proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12 and/or IFN-gamma) than the Bifidobacterium strains. Shigella CBD8 and E. coli CBL2 up-regulated mainly HLA-DR and CD40 expression involved in Th1 activation, and Bifidobacterium strains up-regulated CD83 expression. Specific interactions among the studied bacteria, gliadins, and IFN-gamma, which favored the CD immune features, were also detected. Therefore, intestinal bacteria could be additional factors that regulate the ability of monocytes recruited to the mucosa to respond to gliadins and IFN-gamma in CD patients, influencing the course of the disease.
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