Measurement Properties of the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and Revised Short McGill Pain Questionnaire Version-2 (SF-MPQ-2) in Pain-related Musculoskeletal Conditions
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OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically locate, critically appraise, and summarize clinical measurement research addressing the use of Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and Revised Short McGill Pain Questionnaire Version-2 (SF-MPQ-2) in pain-related musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched 4 databases (Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and SCOPUS) and screened articles to identify those reporting the psychometric properties (eg, validity, reliability) and interpretability (eg, minimal clinically important difference) of BPI-SF and SF-MPQ-2 as evaluated in pain-related MSK conditions. Independently, 2 reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of evidence with a structured quality appraisal tool and the updated COSMIN guidelines. RESULTS: In all, 26 articles were included (BPI-SF, n=17; SF-MPQ-2, n=9). Both tools lack reporting on their cross-cultural validities and measurement error indices (eg, standard error of measurement). High-quality studies suggest the tools are internally consistent (α=0.83 to 0.96), and they associate modestly with similar outcomes (r=0.3 to 0.69). Strong evidence suggests the BPI-SF conforms to its 2-dimensional structure in MSK studies; the SF-MPQ-2 4-factor structure was not clearly established. Seven reports of high-to-moderate quality evidence were supportive of the BPI-SF known-group validity (n=2) and responsiveness (n=5). One report of high quality established the SF-MPQ-2 responsiveness. DISCUSSION: Evidence of high-to-moderate quality supports the internal consistency, criterion-convergent validity, structural validity, and responsiveness of the BPI-SF and SF-MPQ-2 and establishes their use as generic multidimensional pain outcomes in MSK populations. However, more studies of high quality are still needed on their retest reliability, known-group validity, cross-cultural validity, interpretability properties, and measurement error indices in different MSK populations.