Differentiation of COVID‐19 signs and symptoms from allergic rhinitis and common cold: An ARIA‐EAACI‐GA 2 LEN consensus Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • BACKGROUND: Although there are many asymptomatic patients, one of the problems of COVID-19 is early recognition of the disease. COVID-19 symptoms are polymorphic and may include upper respiratory symptoms. However, COVID-19 symptoms may be mistaken with the common cold or allergic rhinitis. An ARIA-EAACI study group attempted to differentiate upper respiratory symptoms between the three diseases. METHODS: A modified Delphi process was used. The ARIA members who were seeing COVID-19 patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire on the upper airway symptoms of COVID-19, common cold and allergic rhinitis. RESULTS: Among the 192 ARIA members who were invited to respond to the questionnaire, 89 responded and 87 questionnaires were analysed. The consensus was then reported. A two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the symptom intensity between the three diseases (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This modified Delphi approach enabled the differentiation of upper respiratory symptoms between COVID-19, the common cold and allergic rhinitis. An electronic algorithm will be devised using the questionnaire.

authors

  • Hagemann, Jan
  • Onorato, Gabrielle L
  • Jutel, Marek
  • Akdis, Cezmi A
  • Agache, Ioana
  • Zuberbier, Torsten
  • Czarlewski, Wienczyslawa
  • Mullol, Joaquim
  • Bedbrook, Anna
  • Bachert, Claus
  • Bennoor, Kazi S
  • Bergmann, Karl‐Christian
  • Braido, Fulvio
  • Camargos, Paulo
  • Caraballo, Luis
  • Cardona, Victoria
  • Casale, Thomas
  • Cecchi, Lorenzo
  • Chivato, Tomas
  • Chu, Derek
  • Cingi, Cemal
  • Correia‐de‐Sousa, Jaime
  • Giacco, Stefano
  • Dokic, Dejan
  • Dykewicz, Mark
  • Ebisawa, Motohiro
  • El‐Gamal, Yehia
  • Emuzyte, Regina
  • Fauquert, Jean‐Luc
  • Fiocchi, Alessandro
  • Fokkens, Wytske J
  • Fonseca, Joao A
  • Gemicioglu, Bilun
  • Gomez, René‐Maximiliano
  • Gotua, Maia
  • Haahtela, Tari
  • Hamelmann, Eckard
  • Iinuma, Tomohisa
  • Ivancevich, Juan Carlos
  • Jassem, Ewa
  • Kalayci, Omer
  • Kardas, Przemyslaw
  • Khaitov, Musa
  • Kuna, Piotr
  • Kvedariene, Violeta
  • Larenas‐Linnemann, Desiree E
  • Lipworth, Brian
  • Makris, Michael
  • Maspero, Jorge F
  • Miculinic, Neven
  • Mihaltan, Florin
  • Mohammad, Yousser
  • Montefort, Stephen
  • Morais‐Almeida, Mario
  • Mösges, Ralph
  • Naclerio, Robert
  • Neffen, Hugo
  • Niedoszytko, Marek
  • O’Hehir, Robyn E
  • Ohta, Ken
  • Okamoto, Yoshitaka
  • Okubo, Kimi
  • Panzner, Petr
  • Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G
  • Passalacqua, Giovanni
  • Patella, Vincenzo
  • Pereira, Ana
  • Pfaar, Oliver
  • Plavec, Davor
  • Popov, Todor A
  • Prokopakis, Emmanuel P
  • Puggioni, Francesca
  • Raciborski, Filip
  • Reijula, Jere
  • Regateiro, Frederico S
  • Reitsma, Sietze
  • Romano, Antonino
  • Rosario, Nelson
  • Rottem, Menachem
  • Ryan, Dermot
  • Samolinski, Boleslaw
  • Sastre, Joaquin
  • Solé, Dirceu
  • Sova, Milan
  • Stellato, Cristiana
  • Suppli‐Ulrik, Charlotte
  • Tsiligianni, Ioanna
  • Valero, Antonio
  • Valiulis, Arunas
  • Valovirta, Erkka
  • Vasankari, Tuula
  • Ventura, Maria Teresa
  • Wallace, Dana
  • Wang, De Yun
  • Williams, Siân
  • Yorgancioglu, Arzu
  • Yusuf, Osman M
  • Zernotti, Mario
  • Bousquet, Jean
  • Klimek, Ludger

publication date

  • August 2021