Persistence of cholera outbreaks in developing countries calls for concern and more targeted intervention measures for long-term control. This research undertook spatial analysis of cholera incidence in Nigeria over a seventeen-year period to determine the existence of regional hotspots and predictors.
A cross-sectional study design was used for the research. Cholera data for each of the thirty-six states and the federal capital territory (FCT) were obtained from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) of the Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria. Socioeconomic data including proportion of households using solid waste disposal (unapproved dumpsite, refuse burying, refuse burning, public dumpsite, and refuse collectors), water sources (pipe borne water, well, borehole, rain water, surface waters and water vendors), sewage disposal (water closet, pit latrines, bucket/pan, public toilet and nearby bush/stream), living in a single room and earning less than minimum wage (18,000 naira) were obtained from National Population Commission. On the other hand, proportion of illiterate adults (15 years and above) and poor people; and population density were obtained from National Bureau of Statistics. Each socioeconomic data was obtained at state level.
Cholera patterns were analysed at state level using Global Moran’s I while specific locations of cholera clusters were determined using Local Moran’s I. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine socioeconomic predictors of cholera incidence.
Local Moran’s I revealed significant cluster patterns in 1999, 2001, 2002, 2009 and 2010 in Adamawa, Gombe, Katsina, Bauchi, Borno, Yobe, and Kano states. Households using surface water was the significant predictor (23%) of the observed spatial variations in cholera incidence.
Persistence of cholera outbreaks in some north east and north western states calls for more targeted, long-term and effective intervention measures especially on provision of safe sources of water supply by government and other stakeholders.