Fifty percent of antibiotic courses in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are unnecessary, leading to increased risk of harm. Most studies to improve antibiotic prescribing in LTCFs showed modest and unsustained results. We aimed to identify facilitators, barriers and strategies in implementing a urinary tract infection (UTI)–focused antimicrobial stewardship (AS) intervention at a LTCF, with the secondary objective of exploring the pharmacist’s potential roles.
The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Participants attended either a focus group or one-on-one interview. Data were analyzed inductively using a codebook modified in an iterative analytic process. Barrier and facilitator themes were mapped using the capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour (COM-B) model. Similarly, themes were identified from the transcripts regarding the pharmacist’s roles.
Sixteen participants were interviewed. Most barriers and facilitators mapped to the opportunities domain of the COM-B model. The main barrier themes were lack of access, lack of knowledge, ineffective communication, lack of resources and external factors, while the main facilitator themes were education, effective collaboration, good communication, sufficient resources and access. For the pharmacist’s role, the barrier themes were ineffective collaboration and communication.
This study supports the importance of tailoring interventions to target factors underlying barriers to behaviour change. At this LTCF, an effective antimicrobial stewardship intervention should incorporate strategies to improve access, knowledge, communication and collaboration in its design, having sufficient resources and addressing external factors to optimize its success and long-term sustainability. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2021;154:xx-xx.