Application of Cell, Tissue, and Biomaterial Delivery in Cardiac Regenerative Therapy
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death around the world, being responsible for 31.8% of all deaths in 2017 (Roth, G. A. et al. The Lancet 2018, 392, 1736-1788). The leading cause of CVD is ischemic heart disease (IHD), which caused 8.1 million deaths in 2013 (Benjamin, E. J. et al. Circulation 2017, 135, e146-e603). IHD occurs when coronary arteries in the heart are narrowed or blocked, preventing the flow of oxygen and blood into the cardiac muscle, which could provoke acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ultimately lead to heart failure and death. Cardiac regenerative therapy aims to repair and refunctionalize damaged heart tissue through the application of (1) intramyocardial cell delivery, (2) epicardial cardiac patch, and (3) acellular biomaterials. In this review, we aim to examine these current approaches and challenges in the cardiac regenerative therapy field.
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