Association of Urine Platinum With Acute Kidney Injury in Children Treated With Cisplatin for Cancer
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Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent highly excreted in urine and known to cause acute kidney injury (AKI). As AKI diagnosis by serum creatinine (SCr) is usually delayed, endeavors for finding early AKI biomarkers continue. This study aims to determine if urine platinum (UP) concentration 24 hours after cisplatin infusion is associated with AKI, and to evaluate the association between urine platinum and tubular damage biomarkers: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). Children treated with cisplatin in 12 Canadian centers (April 2013 to December 2017) were included. Urine from the morning after the first cisplatin infusion of the first or second cisplatin cycle was measured for urine platinum, NGAL, and KIM-1. SCr and serum electrolytes were used to detect AKI by either SCr elevation or urinary electrolyte wasting (potassium, magnesium, phosphate). The associations of urine platinum with AKI, NGAL, and KIM-1 were assessed. A total of 115 participants (54% boys, median age, 8.5 years; interquartile range, 4.0-13.4) were included, of which 29 (25%) and 105 (91%) developed AKI defined by SCr and electrolyte criteria, respectively. Higher urine platinum was associated with higher cisplatin dose (Spearman rho, 0.21) and with younger age (Spearman rho, -0.33). Urine platinum was not associated with postinfusion AKIor KIM-1, but was weakly associated with NGAL, particularly in participants without SCr AKI (Pearson's r, 0.22). Urine platinum may be a marker of mild tubular injury but is not likely to be a useful biomarker of clinically evident AKI.
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