In-situ effect in cross-ply laminates under various loading conditions analyzed with hybrid macro/micro-scale computational models
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In this work, multi-scale finite element analyses based on three-dimensional (3D) hybrid macro/micro-scale computational models subjected to various loading conditions are carried out to examine the in-situ effect imposed by the neighboring plies on the failure initiation and propagation of cross-ply laminates. A detailed comparative study on crack suppression mechanisms due to the effect of embedded laminar thickness and adjacent ply orientation is presented. Furthermore, we compare the results of in-situ transverse failure strain and strength between the computational models and analytical predictions. Good agreements are generally observed, indicating the constructed computational models are highly accurate to quantify the in-situ effect. Subsequently, empirical formulas for calculating the in-situ strengths as a function of embedded ply thickness and different ply angle between embedded and adjacent plies are developed, during which several material parameters are obtained using a reverse fitting method. Finally, a new set of failure criteria for σ 22-τ 12, σ 22-τ 23, and σ 11-τ 12 accounting for the in-situ strengths are proposed to predict laminated composites failure under multi-axial stress states. This study demonstrates an effective and efficient computational technique towards the accurate prediction of the failure behaviors and strengths of cross-ply laminates by including the in-situ effects.
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