- Metastatic bone lesions are common among patients with advanced cancers. While chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be prescribed immediately after diagnosis, the majority of severe metastatic bone lesions are treated by reconstructive surgery, which, in some cases, is followed by postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. However, despite recent advancements in orthopedic surgery, patients undergoing reconstruction still have the risk of developing severe complications such as tumor recurrence and reconstruction failure. This has led to the introduction and evaluation of poly (methyl methacrylate) and inorganic bone cements as local carriers for chemotherapeutic drugs (usually, antineoplastic drugs (ANPDs)). The present work is a critical review of the literature on the potential use of these cements in orthopedic oncology. While several studies have demonstrated the benefits of providing high local drug concentrations while minimizing systemic side effects, only six studies have been conducted to assess the local toxic effect of these drug-loaded cements and they all reported negative effects on healthy bone structure. These findings do not close the door on chemotherapeutic bone cements; rather, they should assist in materials selection when designing future materials for the treatment of metastatic bone disease.