Fluoxetine, a commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, has been shown to increase hepatic lipid accumulation, a key factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Interestingly, fluoxetine has also been reported to increase peripheral serotonin synthesis. As emerging evidence suggests that serotonin may be involved in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, we sought to determine if fluoxetine-induced hepatic lipid accumulation is mediated via altered serotonin production. Fluoxetine treatment increased lipid accumulation in association with increased mRNA expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1, serotonin biosynthetic enzyme) and intracellular serotonin content. Serotonin alone had a similar effect to increase lipid accumulation. Moreover, blocking serotonin synthesis reversed the fluoxetine-induced increases in lipid accumulation. Collectively, these data suggest that fluoxetine-induced lipid accumulation can be mediated, in part, by elevated serotonin production. These results suggest a potential therapeutic target to ameliorate the adverse metabolic effects of fluoxetine exposure.