IQGAP1 expression was analyzed in: (1) primary prostate cancer, (2) xenografts produced from LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells, (3) tumor of PTEN−/− and TRAMP mice, and (4) castration resistant PC (CRPC) produced by LNCaP xenografts and PTEN−/− mice. IQGAP1 downregulations occurred in CRPC and advanced PCs. The downregulations were associated with rapid PC recurrence in the TCGA PanCancer (n = 492, p = 0.01) and MSKCC (n = 140, p = 4 × 10−6) cohorts. Differentially expressed genes (n = 598) relative to IQGAP1 downregulation were identified with enrichment in chemotaxis, cytokine signaling, and others along with reductions in immune responses. A novel 27-gene signature (Sig27gene) was constructed from these DEGs through random division of the TCGA cohort into a Training and Testing population. The panel was validated using an independent MSKCC cohort. Sig27gene robustly predicts PC recurrence at (hazard ratio) HR 2.72 and p < 2 × 10−16 in two independent PC cohorts. The prediction remains significant after adjusting for multiple clinical features. The novel and robust nature of Sig27gene underlie its great translational potential as a prognostic biomarker to predict PC relapse risk in patients with primary PC.