A measure of parent engagement: plan appropriateness, partnering, and positive outcome expectancy in pediatric rehabilitation sessions
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PURPOSE: To examine the psychometric properties of a parent-report measure of engagement in pediatric rehabilitation. METHOD: 113 parents (of children 4 months to 18 years, varying in diagnoses) were recruited from standard outpatient/inpatient, early intervention, and life skills programs, sampled from different sites in Canada, the US, and Australia. Parents completed the Pediatric Rehabilitation Intervention Measure of Engagement-Parent version (PRIME-P) twice, after two therapy sessions approximately two weeks apart. Analyses examined factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, and assessed construct validity hypotheses concerning participant characteristics and contextual factors. RESULTS: The resulting 11-item PRIME-P has three factors capturing engagement in terms of Plan Appropriateness, Partnering, and Positive Outcome Expectancy. The factors displayed strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability (Partnering demonstrated slightly weaker test-retest reliability). Construct validity was shown by significant associations between the PRIME-P scales and parents' presence versus absence during the sessions, as well as service providers' years of experience. CONCLUSIONS: The PRIME-P captures parent engagement as a multifaceted construct involving appropriateness of the therapy plan, a sense of active partnership in the intervention process, and an expectation for a positive outcome. The PRIME-P has promise for research, clinical practice, and educational purposes.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThe PRIME-P is a psychometrically sound tool that fills a gap in how researchers and practitioners can measure the engagement of parents in the therapy process.To enhance parent engagement, service providers can encourage collaboration in planning, foster a sense of working in partnership, and convey a sense of hope.The findings point to the need to pay attention to parents' beliefs about the therapy plan and outcomes, in addition to their behavioral involvement.The PRIME-P is a promising tool for pediatric rehabilitation that can be used to investigate the role of a crucial, yet poorly understood variable in the therapy process.
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