Influence of common dietary supplements (curcumin, andrographolide, and d-limonene) on the radiobiological responses of p53-competent colonic cancer epithelial cells
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PURPOSE: The main goal of the research was to determine whether commercially available common dietary phytochemical supplements (curcumin, andrographolide, and d-limonene) have radiomodulatory effects on p53-competent human colonic epithelial cells. METHODS: Clonogenic survival assays were used to characterize effects of the phytochemicals on cultured colonic epithelial cells (HCT116 p53+/+) in direct irradiation or upon receipt of irradiated-cell conditioned media (for bystander effects). In direct irradiation, feeding regimen experiments included compound administration pre- and post-irradiation, which was used as a basis to define effects as radioprotective and radiomitigative, respectively. In the bystander effect experiments, either donor or recipient cell cultures were fed with the phytochemicals and bystander-induced clonogenic cell death was quantitatively evaluated. Dose challenge was in the range of 0.5 - 5 Gy using the gamma source (Cs-137). RESULTS: Curcumin, andrographolide, and d-limonene appeared to not exhibit radioprotective and radiomitigative properties in HCT116 p53+/+ cells. D-limonene was found to induce radiosensitization in post-irradiation administration. All three compounds appeared not to modulate the radiation-induced bystander signal production and response in HCT116 p53+/+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin, andrographolide, and d-limonene are known to have many chemoprotective benefits. This work shows that they, however, did not protect colonic epithelial HCT116 p53+/+ cells from radiation killing. As HCT116 p53+/+ cells are tumourigenic in nature, this finding implies that these three dietary compounds would not reduce the killing efficacy of radiation in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis. The post-irradiation radiosensitizing effect of d-limonene was an intriguing observation worth further investigation.
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