Different strategies for convective O2 transport in high altitude birds: A graphical analysis
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For illustrative purposes, in this article we use "Johansen Plots" as a graphical way of simultaneously visualizing the inter-connected variables that compose the convective steps of the gas transport cascade. These plots are used to reflect on some of the physiological characteristics seen in five species of birds, four of which sojourn to, or are native to, high altitudes (the barnacle goose, bar-headed goose, Andean goose, speckled teal and ruddy duck). These species were chosen to emphasize the diversity of responses to hypoxia that can exist within a single family. This diversity likely arose for many possible reasons, including local adaptation to hypoxia, differences in flight or diving abilities, or as a result of other phylogenetically-based differences across waterfowl in physiology, behaviour, and/or life style.
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