The discovery of the microbiota-gut-brain axis has revolutionized our understanding of systemic influences on brain function and may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to neurodevelopmental and mood disorders. A parallel revolution has occurred in the field of intercellular communication, with the realization that endosomes, and other extracellular vesicles, rival the endocrine system as regulators of distant tissues. These two paradigms shifting developments come together in recent observations that bacterial membrane vesicles contribute to inter-kingdom signaling and may be an integral component of gut microbe communication with the brain. In this short review we address the current understanding of the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and the roles they play in the survival of microbes and in intra and inter-kingdom communication. We identify recent observations indicating that bacterial membrane vesicles, particularly those derived from probiotic organisms, regulate brain function. We discuss mechanisms by which bacterial membrane vesicles may influence the brain including interaction with the peripheral nervous system, and modulation of immune activity. We also review evidence suggesting that, unlike the parent organism, gut bacteria derived membrane vesicles are able to deliver cargo, including neurotransmitters, directly to the central nervous system and may thus constitute key components of the microbiota-gut-brain axis.