Evolution and change in paradigm of hemodialysis in children: a systematic review Journal Articles uri icon

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  • BACKGROUND: There are similarities in hemodialysis (HD) between adults and children and also unique pediatric aspects. In this systematic review, we evaluated the existing HD literature, including vascular access, indications, parameters, and outcomes as a reflection on real-life HD practices. METHODS: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for literature on HD in children (1-20 years). Two reviewers independently assessed the literature and data on indications; vascular access, outcomes, and specific parameters for HD were extracted. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies (8751 patients) were included in this review. Studies were stratified into age groups 1-5, 6-12, and 13-20 years based on median/mean age reported in the study, as well as era of publication (1990-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2019). Across all age groups, both arteriovenous fistulas and central venous catheters were utilized for vascular access. Congenital abnormalities and glomerulopathy were the most common HD indications. HD parameters including HD session duration, dialysate and blood flow rates, urea reduction ratio, and ultrafiltration were characterized for each age group, as well as common complications including catheter dysfunction and intradialytic hypotension. Median mortality rates were 23.3% (3.3), 7.6% (14.5), and 2.0% (3.0) in ages 1-5, 6-12, and 13-20 years, respectively. Median transplantation rates were 41.6% (38.3), 52.0% (32.0), and 21% (25.6) in ages 1-5, 6-12, and 13-20, respectively. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive systematic review summarizes available literature on HD in children and young adults, including best vascular access, indications, technical aspects, and outcomes, and reflects on HD practices over the last three decades.


  • Chanchlani, Rahul
  • Young, Claire
  • Farooq, Aisha
  • Sanger, Stephanie
  • Sethi, Sidharth
  • Chakraborty, Ronith
  • Tibrewal, Abhishek
  • Raina, Rupesh

publication date

  • May 2021