This systematic review determined if the composition of time spent in movement behaviours (i.e., sleep, sedentary behaviour (SED), light physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) is associated with health in adults. Five electronic databases were searched in August 2019. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were peer-reviewed, examined community-dwelling adults, and used compositional data analysis to examine the associations between the composition of time spent in movement behaviours and health outcomes. Eight studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 prospective cohort) of >12 000 unique participants were included. Findings indicated that the 24-h movement behaviour composition was associated with all-cause mortality (1 of 1 analyses), adiposity (4 of 4 analyses), and cardiometabolic biomarkers (8 of 15 analyses). Reallocating time into MVPA from other movement behaviours was associated with favourable changes to most health outcomes and taking time out of SED and reallocating it into other movement behaviours was associated with favourable changes to all-cause mortality. The quality of evidence was very low for all health outcomes. In conclusion, these findings support the notion that the composition of movement across the entire 24-h day matters, and that recommendations for sleep, SED, and physical activity should be combined into a single public health guideline. (PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42019121641.)
Novelty The 24-h movement behaviour composition is associated with a variety of health outcomes. Reallocating time into MVPA is favourably associated with health. Reallocating time out of SED is associated with favourable changes to mortality risk.