The Levels of
Growth Factor in Patients with Myofascial Pain Syndrome and in Healthy Controls
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BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in muscle maintenance and repair. The role of IGF-2 in the muscle is less clear. OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of IGF-1 and IGF-2 in participants with acute myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) versus healthy controls and to determine whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), region of pain, and pain intensity are associated with IGF levels. DESIGN: A case-control study design included a total of 74 participants. SETTING: Hospital emergency department. PARTICIPANTS: Participants presenting with acute MPS (n = 43) and non-MPS controls (n = 31). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum IGF-1 and IGF-2 (pg/mL) were measured in participants with MPS within 24 hours of symptom onset, and in non-MPS controls. Group and gender differences in serum IGF-1 and IGF-2 were assessed, with group and gender as factors, while controlling for age and BMI. RESULTS: The mean IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between MPS and controls (88 554.1, confidence interval [CI], 79 724.4-97 383.7 vs. 97 911.2, CI, 85 322.8-110 493.6). Significant differences were also not observed in IGF-1 levels between men and women with MPS nor between men and women in the control group. Mean levels of IGF-2 were significantly lower in patients with MPS than in controls (226 608.9, CI, 180 057.3-273 160.5 versus 460 343.9, CI, 387 809.4-532 878.2, P < .001). There were no significant gender differences in the levels of IGF-2 in patients with MPS. Mean IGF-2 levels (pg/mL) of men and women with MPS were lower (253 343.0, CI, 179 891.0-326 795.0, and 204 524.2, CI, 141 176.4-267 872.0, respectively) than those of healthy men and women (428 177.2, CI, 368 345.7-488 008.6, and 511 274.4, 355 178.6-687 370.1, respectively). Lower BMI and younger age were associated with higher levels of IGF-2. Pain intensity was associated with IGF-2 but not with IGF-1, whereas region of pain was not associated with either IGF-1 or IGF-2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-2 levels were lower in patients with acute MPS versus healthy controls with no gender differences, and IGF-1 levels were not different among the groups. Future studies should investigate the role of IGF-2 in muscle maintenance and repair in MPS.
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