Diagnosis and Acute Management of E-Cigarette or Vaping Product Use–Associated Lung Injury in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review
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OBJECTIVE: To assess quantitative data on the presentation, investigative findings, patterns of lung injury, and interventions of pediatric cases of e-cigarette or vaping-associated lung injury (EVALI) in the acute care setting. STUDY DESIGN: A literature search using keywords was performed on April 17, 2020, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Three thousand five hundred fifty-eight articles were retrieved from MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase via OVID, CINAHL via EBSCO, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were evaluated for inclusion based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria by 2 independent reviewers. RESULTS: The search yielded a total of 3558 individual results, 145 of which were evaluated by full text review, resulting in 23 articles included in this systematic review. Two of these articles were identified by manual search of article references. A total of 61 cases of EVALI were described, and 10 major patterns of lung injury were identified for which presenting symptoms, diagnostic and laboratory investigations, interventions, and outcomes were synthesized. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of EVALI in the pediatric population have been reported in patients as young as 13 years and often present with respiratory, constitutional, abdominal, and cardiovascular signs and symptoms. Diagnostic findings vary based on the underlying lung injury pattern. However, typical patterns of common findings were identified, including the presence of ground-glass opacities on computed tomography scan and leukocytosis. Mainstays of treatment include the use of corticosteroids, antibiotics, and ventilatory support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Outcomes range from complete or near complete recovery of lung function to death.