Endometriosis represents a frequently diagnosed gynecological affliction in the reproductive timespan of women, defined by symptoms ranging from pelvic pain to infertility. A complex interplay between the genetic profile, hormonal activity, menstrual cyclicity, inflammation status, and immunological factors define the phenotypic presentation of endometriosis. To date, imaging techniques represent the gold standard in diagnosing endometriosis, of which transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging bring the most value to the diagnostic step. Current medical treatment options for endometriosis-associated infertility focus on either stimulating the follicular development and ovulation or on inhibiting the growth and development of endometriotic lesions. Techniques of assisted reproduction consisting of superovulation with in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination represent effective treatment alternatives that improve fertility in patients suffering from endometriosis. Emerging therapies such as the usage of antioxidant molecules and stem cells still need future research to prove the therapeutic efficacy in this pathology.