- Recent advances in technology show promise in providing greater vascular access options for hemodialysis patients. This review discusses novel methods for creating an anastomosis for arteriovenous (AV) fistulas and new materials for prosthetic AV grafts. Two technologies for endovascular arteriovenous fistula creation, the Ellipsys and WavelinQ endovascular systems, are discussed. When an AV fistula is not possible, an AV graft or devices to augment the AV fistula may be appropriate. New materials that have been developed that show promise as an alternative to the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft are discussed. Such potential conduits include bioengineered vessels and both allogenic or xenogenic biologic grafts. Devices designed to optimize blood flow to reduce maturation failure and improve AV fistula outcomes are explored.