Long-term mortality and costs following use of Impella® for mechanical circulatory support: a population-based cohort study
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PURPOSE: The Impella® device is a form of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) used in critically ill adults with cardiogenic shock. We sought to evaluate short- and long-term outcomes following the use of Impella, including mortality, healthcare utilization, and costs. METHODS: Population-based, retrospective cohort study of adult patients (≥ 16 yr) receiving Impella in Ontario, Canada (1 April 2012-31March 2019). We captured outcomes through linkage to health administrative databases. The primary outcome was mortality during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included mortality at 30 days, 90 days, and one year following Impella insertion. We analyzed health system costs in Canadian dollars in the year following the date of the index admission, including the costs of inpatient admission. RESULTS: We included 162 patients. Mean (standard deviation) age was 59.2 (14.5) yr, and 73.5% of patients were male. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] time to Impella insertion from date of hospital admission was 2 [1-9] days. In-hospital mortality was 56.8%, and a significant proportion of patients were bridged to a ventricular assist device (67.9%). Mortality at one year was 61.7%. Among hospital survivors, only 38.6% were discharged home independently. Median [IQR] total cost in the year following admission among all patients was $88,397 [32,718-225,628], of which $66,529 [22,789-183,165] was attributed to inpatient care. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality among patients with cardiogenic shock receiving Impella is high, but with minimal increase at one year. While Impella patients accrued substantial costs, these largely reflected inpatient costs, and not costs incurred following hospital discharge.
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