High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I vs a Clinical Chemistry Score for Predicting All-Cause Mortality in an Emergency Department Population
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Background: For patients investigated for suspected acute coronary syndrome, there is uncertainty if a single measurement of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) at emergency department (ED) presentation can identify patients at both low and high risk for mortality. Methods: We included consecutive adult patients in the ED who had a Clinical Chemistry Score (CCS) taken at presentation (ie, combination of glucose, creatinine for estimated glomerular filtration rate determination, and hs-cTnI assay) in a Canadian city between 2012 and 2013. Outcomes were 3-month, 1-year, and 5-year all-cause mortality using the provincial death registry. Mortality rates and test performance (eg, sensitivity and specificity) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained for the CCS or hs-cTnI assay alone using established cutoffs for these tests. Results: Our cohort included 5974 patients with a 1-year mortality rate of 17.2% (95% CI, 16.2-18.3). A CCS ≥ 1 yielded a sensitivity of 99.2% (95% CI, 98.4-99.6) compared with the hs-cTnI ≥ 5 ng/L cutoff sensitivity of 88.4% (95% CI, 86.3-90.3), with the mortality rate being significantly lower for patients with CCS < 1 (2.0%; 95% CI, 0.9-4.0) vs patients with hs-cTnI < 5 ng/L (5.0%; 95% CI, 4.2-6.0) at 1 year (P = 0.01). A CCS of 5 also yielded a higher specificity (88.5%; 95% CI, 87.5-89.3) compared with hs-cTnI > 26 ng/L (83.9%; 95% CI, 82.9-84.9), with no difference in mortality rates (37.4% vs 36.3%; P = 0.66). This trend was consistent at 3-month and 5-year mortality. Conclusion: For patients in the ED with a potential cardiac issue, using the CCS cutoffs can better identify patients at low and high risk for mortality than using published cutoffs for hs-cTnI alone.