Competency in Tubularized Incised Plate Repair for Distal Hypospadias: Cumulative Sum Learning Curve Analysis of a Single Surgeon Experience
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PURPOSE: We sought to determine the number of cases to achieve competency and proficiency in tubularized incised plate technique for distal hypospadias repair using cumulative sum analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2001 to 2015 we reviewed all distal tubularized incised plate repairs performed by a single surgeon since independent practice. Data for 450 consecutive cases included age, meatal location, presence of curvature, operative time, occurrence of complications and followup duration. A cumulative sum analysis cohort chart was used to determine trends in complication rate and operative time during the evaluation period. In order to account for surgical experience with time, the highest peak, plateau, and down trends in operative time and complication rate were identified on the plot and set as the transition points between learning (phase 1), competence (phase 2) and proficiency (phase 3). RESULTS: Based on the cumulative sum analysis learning curve, the competence phase with plateau of operative time and complication rate commences beyond the 127th case, and the proficiency phase with notable decline in operative time and complication rate was noted beyond the 234th case. When comparing case characteristics and surgical outcomes between phases and learning curve, the proficiency phase involved younger patients and more severe degree of distal hypospadias being repaired using the tubularized incised plate approach with fewer complications related to meatal stenosis and fewer cosmetic complications. CONCLUSIONS: In our study competency in distal hypospadias tubularized incised plate repair was reached beyond the 127th case, while proficiency was attained beyond the 234th case.
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