This study examined the efficacy of exercise programs for individuals with intellectual disability (ID) based on experimental designs. Multiple databases were searched from inception up until March 2019. Randomized control trials were eligible for inclusion if they (a) included a population with ID; (b) used an exercise intervention; and (c) included performance, cardiovascular health, and/or psychological measures. All data were pooled using random effects models of standardized mean differences. The review included 18 studies which represented data from 799 individuals with ID. The largest effect was seen in relation to anxiety and depression symptoms (SMD = −3.07). This study represented the first comprehensive analysis on this topic area and illustrated that exercise can play an important therapeutic role for this population.