Medium term post-bariatric surgery deficit of vitamin B12 is predicted by deficit at time of surgery
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BACKGROUND: Patients with morbid obesity have a high risk of deficits in micronutrients, after bariatric surgery. The reasons why systematic use of multivitamin and trace element supplements cannot prevent all deficits are complex and should deserve more attention. Little is known about the influence of micronutrient deficits at surgery. AIM: This present study aimed to explore the deficit in vitamin B12 vs other micronutrients during the follow-up of a French cohort of cases with bariatric surgery under systematic multivitamin/trace elements supplementation and to determine whether it was influenced by clinical, metabolic characteristics at surgery. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled obese patients with bariatric surgery (laparoscopic gastric bypass or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy) between 2013 and 2018 (OBESEPI/ALDEPI Cohort, NCT02663388). They received a daily multivitamin/micronutrients supplement. Follow-up data at 4 visits, 2, 12, 18 and 24 months after surgery, were collected. RESULTS: The highest rate of deficits was observed at visit 1 for vitamin D (35.7%), iron (21.9%) and folate (10.2%). Except B12, the deficits of all micronutrients decreased in later visits. In contrast, cases with vitamin B12 deficit decreased from 13.5% at surgery to 2.0% at visit 1, and increased in later visits, with a maximum of 12.0% at visit 3. Vitamin B12 concentration at surgery was the single predictor of B12 deficit at visit 3. It was also associated with age, and APRI score, an index of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The failure of systematic supplementation with multivitamin/trace elements tablets to prevent specific deficits illustrates the need for adapted specific supplementations, in some cases. The worsening of B12 deficit rate in the 18-24 months follow-up depends in part to low B12 at time of surgery. A special consideration should be devoted to this subset of patients. The cohort study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02663388.