Gene transfer for cytokine functional studies in the lung: the multifunctional role of GM-CSF in pulmonary inflammation
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Using adenoviral-mediated gene transfer techniques, the murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) transgene is efficiently targeted to and highly expressed by the respiratory epithelium of rat lung. This lung tissue-directed expression of GM-CSF induces accumulation of both eosinophils and macrophages at early stages and an irreversible fibrotic reaction at later stages. These tissue responses to GM-CSF appear to be distinct from those induced by other proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), or RANTES overexpressed in the lung. These findings clearly demonstrate that GM-CSF is more than a hematopoietic cytokine in the lung and may play a pivotal role in the multiple pathological processes underlying numerous respiratory illnesses, including asthma. In this overview, the differences in tissue responses induced by GM-CSF and other individual cytokines are highlighted. In addition, the mechanisms by which GM-CSF and other individual cytokines are highlighted. In addition, the mechanisms by which GM-CSF contributes to the development of eosinophilia, macrophage granuloma, and fibrosis are discussed in conjunction with the recent findings from us and others.
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