Fine-Tuning of the RIG-I-Like Receptor/Interferon Regulatory Factor 3-Dependent Antiviral Innate Immune Response by the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/β-Catenin Pathway Academic Article uri icon

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  • ABSTRACT Induction of an antiviral innate immune response relies on pattern recognition receptors, including retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptors (RLR), to detect invading pathogens, resulting in the activation of multiple latent transcription factors, including interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Upon sensing of viral RNA and DNA, IRF3 is phosphorylated and recruits coactivators to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and selected sets of IRF3-regulated IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) such as those for ISG54 ( Ifit2 ), ISG56 ( Ifit1 ), and viperin ( Rsad2 ). Here, we used wild-type, glycogen synthase kinase 3α knockout (GSK-3α −/− ), GSK-3β −/− , and GSK-3α/β double-knockout (DKO) embryonic stem (ES) cells, as well as GSK-3β −/− mouse embryonic fibroblast cells in which GSK-3α was knocked down to demonstrate that both isoforms of GSK-3, GSK-3α and GSK-3β, are required for this antiviral immune response. Moreover, the use of two selective small-molecule GSK-3 inhibitors (CHIR99021 and BIO-acetoxime) or ES cells reconstituted with the catalytically inactive versions of GSK-3 isoforms showed that GSK-3 activity is required for optimal induction of antiviral innate immunity. Mechanistically, GSK-3 isoform activation following Sendai virus infection results in phosphorylation of β-catenin at S33/S37/T41, promoting IRF3 DNA binding and activation of IRF3-regulated ISGs. This study identifies the role of a GSK-3/β-catenin axis in antiviral innate immunity.


  • Khan, Kashif Aziz
  • Dô, Florence
  • Marineau, Alexandre
  • Doyon, Priscilla
  • Clément, Jean-François
  • Woodgett, James R
  • Doble, Bradley
  • Servant, Marc J

publication date

  • September 2015

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