Checkpoint inhibitor-associated autoimmunity
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Checkpoint inhibitors (CI) have revolutionized the management of many cancers but can result in immune-related adverse events (IRAE). In this chapter, we review the clinical manifestations and management of the most common IRAE, plus less common IRAE, such as inflammatory arthritis, of particular interest to rheumatologists. We review the mechanism of action of CI, predictors of IRAE, and the impact of IRAE on cancer outcomes. The study of IRAE is in its infancy; there are very few prospective studies and virtually no treatment trials. Where possible, we have drawn estimates of IRAE incidence from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. Clinical descriptions are derived from case series and case reports. Readers are encouraged to refer to consensus guidelines for IRAE management published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer.
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