Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Using One-week Triple Therapies Combining Omeprazole with Two Antimicrobials: The MACH I Study
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BACKGROUND: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori provides potential cure in the majority of patients with peptic ulcer disease, and eradication rates of more than 90% have been reported, using omeprazole in combination with two antimicrobials. The choice of antimicrobials, dose regimen and duration of treatment have varied between studies, however, and an optimal treatment still has to be established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving more than 100 patients in each of six treatment groups in 43 hospital gastrointestinal units in Canada, Germany, Ireland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Patients (n = 787) with proved duodenal ulcer disease were randomized to treatment twice daily for 1 week with omeprazole, 20 mg (O), plus either placebo (P) or combinations of two of the following antimicrobials: amoxicillin, 1 gm (A), clarithromycin, 250 or 500 mg (C250, C500), or metronidazole, 400 mg (M). Eradication of H. pylori was evaluated by 13C-UBT, performed before and 4 weeks after treatment cessation. RESULTS: The eradication rates for the all-patients-treated analysis were 96%, OAC500; 95%, OMC250; 90%, OMC500; 84%, OAC250; 79%, OAM; and 1%, OP. OAC500 and OMC250 achieved eradication rates with lower 95% confidence interval limits exceeding 90%. All regimens were well-tolerated, 96% of patients complied with their dose regimen, and 2.3% of the patients discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Omeprazole triple therapies given twice daily for 1 week produce high eradication rates, are well-tolerated, and are associated with high patient compliance. The two most effective therapies were those combining omeprazole, 20 mg, with either amoxicillin, 1 gm, plus clarithromycin, 500 mg, or metronidazole, 400 mg, plus clarithromycin, 250 mg, all given twice daily.
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