Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of urinary tract infections in the first year of life in children with vesicoureteral reflux diagnosed in the workup of antenatal hydronephrosis: a systematic review
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BACKGROUND: Children with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) diagnosed with postnatal asymptomatic vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are thought to be at higher risk of urinary tract infection (UTI). As such, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) is empirically recommended until age of toilet training; however, there are limited data to support this. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the existing data and compare UTI rates in infants with asymptomatic VUR on CAP during the first year of life, to those not on CAP. Secondary objectives were to determine associated risk factors with UTI development. METHODS: A systematic search of all relevant studies and abstracts was conducted using 4 electronic databases by utilizing appropriate key words by an expert hospital librarian. Eligible studies included children with prenatal hydronephrosis, asymptomatic VUR with or without CAP, and reported on development of UTI in the first year. RESULTS: Of 6903 citations screened, 18 were selected, giving a total population of 829 (69.4% male, median age 57 days) who met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were retrospective and of low-quality evidence. Overall, 15.4% of patients developed at least one breakthrough UTI and females had a higher risk of UTI (odds ratio (OR) 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.7). Comparison with children not taking CAP was not readily reported, and meta-analysis could not be completed. CONCLUSIONS: Randomized controlled trials and standardized reporting of clinical variables are required to understand the protective effect of antibiotic prophylaxis in this cohort.
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