Screening and Treatment Outcomes in Adults and Children With Type 1 Diabetes and Asymptomatic Celiac Disease: The CD-DIET Study
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OBJECTIVE: To describe celiac disease (CD) screening rates and glycemic outcomes of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in patients with type 1 diabetes who are asymptomatic for CD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Asymptomatic patients (8-45 years) were screened for CD. Biopsy-confirmed CD participants were randomized to GFD or gluten-containing diet (GCD) to assess changes in HbA1c and continuous glucose monitoring over 12 months. RESULTS: Adults had higher CD-seropositivity rates than children (6.8% [95% CI 4.9-8.2%, N = 1,298] vs. 4.7% [95% CI 3.4-5.9%, N = 1,089], P = 0.035) with lower rates of prior CD screening (6.9% vs. 44.2%, P < 0.0001). Fifty-one participants were randomized to a GFD (N = 27) or GCD (N = 24). No HbA1c differences were seen between the groups (+0.14%, 1.5 mmol/mol; 95% CI -0.79 to 1.08; P = 0.76), although greater postprandial glucose increases (4-h +1.5 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.4-2.7; P = 0.014) emerged with a GFD. CONCLUSIONS: CD is frequently observed in asymptomatic patients with type 1 diabetes, and clinical vigilance is warranted with initiation of a GFD.
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