In this report we describe a platelet alloantigen system that is carried on a novel platelet protein of 175 Kd. Antisera against the two alleles (Gova/Govb) were found in two patients who had received large numbers of platelet transfusions. The anti-Gov alloantibodies could not be detected using a whole platelet solid phase enzyme immunoassay, or by a platelet glycoprotein capture enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies against glycoproteins Ib/IX, Ia/IIa, and IIb/IIIa. Using radioimmunoprecipitation techniques, a protein was precipitated that migrated at 175 Kd (reduced). Under nonreduced conditions, a 150-Kd protein was detected with a minor component at 175Kd. The detection of the alloantigens was not activation-dependent. Using immunodepletion studies, we demonstrated that each alloantiserum recognized an epitope on a discrete population of the 175-Kd platelet protein. Family studies demonstrated that the alloantigens designated as Gova and Govb were inherited in an autosomal codominant fashion. The phenotypic frequencies were Gova/Gova, 26%; Gova/Govb, 55%; Govb/Govb, 19%; giving gene frequencies of 0.532 and 0.468 for Gova and Govb, respectively (n = 33).