This article provides an overview of mental and physical health outcomes of child maltreatment to help health care providers identify the consequences of maltreatment and consider treatment options. Child maltreatment is associated with a variety of negative physical and mental health outcomes that affect the individual throughout the lifespan and place a substantial burden on both victims and the population as a whole. The review begins with an overview of the role of physicians in identifying abuse and neglect in the clinic setting. Next, current research findings on physical and mental health outcomes in children, adolescents, and adults are reviewed. Finally, opportunities for primary prevention of abuse and neglect are discussed. Primary prevention strategies can avoid risk for maltreatment, and subsequent interventions for victims have the potential to greatly improve their health.