Abstract. Although individual differences in behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation (BIS/BAS) are associated with differential risk of psychopathology in typical development, and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors experience higher rates of psychopathology, measures of BIS/BAS have been largely unexplored in this population. As well, apparently no studies have examined the long-term stability of BIS/BAS in typical or atypical development. Ninety-nine ELBW survivors and 86 normal birth weight (NBW) control participants completed a measure of BIS/BAS at ages 22–26 and 30–35 years. At age 30–35 years we found that ELBW survivors scored lower on the BAS scale than NBW controls, but did not differ on the BIS scale. We also found evidence for long-term stability of BIS/BAS at the individual and rank-order levels, but not at the mean-level. These results highlight the importance of considering stability of motivational aspects of personality and also add to our understanding of how individual differences in these motivational tendencies may underlie psychopathology among ELBW survivors.