Secondary complications and subjective well-being in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: associations with self-reported adiposity
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STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between adiposity, secondary complications and subjective well-being (SWB) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Parkwood Hospital (London); Hamilton Health Sciences-Chedoke Site and McMaster University (Hamilton); Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Lyndhurst Centre (Toronto); and St Mary's of the Lake Hospital and Queen's University (Kingston), Ontario, Canada. METHODS: A total of 531 men and 164 women (N=695) enrolled in the Study of Health and Activity in People with Spinal Cord Injury (SHAPE-SCI) completed the Secondary Health Complications Survey, SF-36 pain subscale, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ) during a telephone interview. Body mass index (BMI) measurements were obtained from a subsample of the SHAPE-SCI participants (n=73) during a home visit. RESULTS: Controlling for covariates, individuals who reported being overweight were more likely to have a history of overuse injuries and fatigue, experienced a greater impact of overuse injuries and fatigue, had greater pain and depressive symptoms, and had lower satisfaction with life than individuals who did not report being overweight. BMI was only associated with an increased likelihood of reporting spasticity. CONCLUSION: Self-reported overweight status was associated with an increased prevalence of certain secondary complications and lower SWB. Future prospective studies should examine whether reductions in adiposity are associated with changes in the prevalence and the impact of secondary complications and SWB.