Ethylammonium Lead Iodide Formation in MAPbI3 Precursor Solutions by DMF Decomposition and Organic Cation Exchange Reaction Academic Article uri icon

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  • Extra peaks have constantly been observed in the X-ray diffraction measurement for the CH3NH3PbI3 film. Such mysteries have now been uncovered in this paper, in which powder X-ray diffraction, in situ X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy measurements were conducted, and these peaks were attributed to the ethylammonium lead iodide (CH3CH2NH3PbI3/EAPbI3). It was found that the formation of EAPbI3 was triggered by the breakdown of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF), which was adopted as the solvent in the preparation of the precursor solutions. EAPbI3 was generated by the organic cation exchange reaction in the subsequent annealing process. A simple solution for this problem is proposed in this paper as well, which would hopefully help the community to eradicate this impurity.


  • Wang, Ryan Taoran
  • Liu, Elton Enchong
  • Xu, Alex Fan
  • Yang, Lory Wenjuan
  • Chen, Jason Yuanzhe
  • Xu, Gu

publication date

  • March 1, 2020