A thrombin receptor function for platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX unmasked by cleavage of glycoprotein V
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Glycoprotein (GP) V is a major substrate cleaved by the protease thrombin during thrombin-induced platelet activation. Previous analysis of platelets from GP V-null mice suggested a role for GP V as a negative modulator of platelet activation by thrombin. We now report the mechanism by which thrombin activates GP V -/- platelets. We show that proteolytically inactive forms of thrombin induce robust stimulatory responses in GP V null mouse platelets, via the platelet GP Ib--IX--V complex. Because proteolytically inactive thrombin can activate wild-type mouse and human platelets after treatment with thrombin to cleave GP V, this mechanism is involved in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Platelet activation through GP Ib-IX depends on ADP secretion, and specific inhibitors demonstrate that the recently cloned P2Y(12) ADP receptor (G(i)-coupled ADP receptor) is involved in this pathway, and that the P2Y(1) receptor (G(q)-coupled ADP receptor) may play a less significant role. Thrombosis was generated in GP V null mice only in response to catalytically inactive thrombin, whereas thrombosis occurred in both genotypes (wild type and GP V null) in response to active thrombin. These data support a thrombin receptor function for the platelet membrane GP Ib--IX--V complex, and describe a novel thrombin signaling mechanism involving an initiating proteolytic event followed by stimulation of the GP Ib--IX via thrombin acting as a ligand, resulting in platelet activation.
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