The cell adhesion molecule CD31 is phosphorylated after cell activation. Down-regulation of CD31 in activated T lymphocytes.
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We report the independent cloning of the cDNA for CD31, a recently described cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily present on platelets, granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. Northern analysis revealed three major mRNA transcripts in Jurkat (a human T cell line) and K562 and HEL (leukemia cell lines) cells with an additional 5.3-kilobase transcript seen in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Following T cell activation, CD31 mRNA was down-regulated by Northern analysis, and decreased CD31 protein expression was confirmed by immunoblots. The down-regulation of CD31 was partially mediated by decreased transcription as demonstrated by nuclear run-on studies. CD31 became rapidly phosphorylated in platelets, Jurkat cells, and endothelial cells after cell activation. We were unable to demonstrate the presence of a phosphotyrosine in CD31 using monoclonal and polyclonal phosphotyrosine antibodies. In addition, CD31 phosphorylation in platelets was induced by phorbol ester and was blocked by staurosporin, a protein kinase C inhibitor, suggesting that CD31 phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase C and involves serine and/or threonine residues. The phosphorylation of CD31 following cell activation may modulate its cellular adhesiveness, and the down-regulation of its expression may serve to impart target specificity and to localize effector lymphocytes to areas of inflammation.
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