What has been learnt from the Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI)-deficient mouse?
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SUMMARY: Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a circulating zymogen that is activated physiologically by the thrombin/thrombomodulin complex to activated TAFI (TAFIa) which is a basic carboxypeptidase. Substrates include fibrin, leading to a reduction in rate of plasmin generation, and several proinflammatory mediators such as bradykinin, thrombin-cleaved osteopontin and complement factor C5a. TAFI-deficient mice have no phenotype without being challenged and TAFIa appears to play a limited role in physiological fibrinolysis in vivo. In several disease models, the TAFI-deficient mice have different outcomes from the wild type (WT), but whether the difference is beneficial or an exacerbation of the disease depends on the model. The consequences of TAFI deficiency include increased plasmin as a result of enhanced incorporation of plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator into the fibrin clot, but also loss of its ability to degrade other substrates, with the resultant up-regulation of several proinflammatory mediators, including C5a. Criteria are recommended to demonstrate that a substrate is a physiological substrate of TAFIa.
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