Bast fibers and products derived from them are undergoing a resurgence in demand in the global market. However, fungal diseases have become an important factor limiting their yield and quality, causing devastating consequences for the production of bast fiber crops in many parts of the world. Thus, there is a high demand for effective control and prevention strategies against fungal pathogens. Having rapid, specific, sensitive, and cost-effective tests that can be used for early and accurate diagnosis of disease agents is an essential step of such strategies. The objective of this study was to review the current status of research on molecular diagnosis of fungal pathogens on bast fiber crops. Our search of PubMed identified nearly 20 genera of fungal pathogens on bast fiber crops, among which the five most common genera were Colletotrichum, Pythium, Verticillium, Fusarium, and Golovinomyces. The gene regions that have been used for molecular identifications of these fungi include internal transcribed spacer (ITS), translation elongation factor 1-α (EF-1α), ß-tubulin, calmodulin (CAL), histone subunit 3 (H3), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), etc. We summarize the molecular assays that have been used to identify these fungi and discuss potential areas of future development for fast, specific, and accurate diagnosis of fungal pathogens on bast fiber crops.