Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a poorly understood pathology. Patients suffer from a variety of physical and cognitive effects that worsen as the type of trauma worsens. Some noninvasive insights into the pathophysiology of TBI are possible using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and many other forms of imaging as well. A recent workshop was convened to evaluate the common data elements (CDEs) that cut across the imaging field and given the charge to review the contributions of the various imaging modalities to TBI and to prepare an overview of the various clinical manifestations of TBI and their interpretation. Technical details regarding state‐of‐the‐art protocols for both MRI and CT are also presented with the hope of guiding current and future research efforts as to what is possible in the field. Stress was also placed on the potential to create a database of CDEs as a means to best record information from a given patient from the reading of the images. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;32:516–543. © 2010 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.